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Table 1 CD44-targeted therapy in some preclinical and clinical studies

From: CD44 as a tumor biomarker and therapeutic target

CD44-targeted agents Cancer type CD44 function Ref.
CD44 antibodies
 CD44 blocking antibody Lung cancer Suppressing the proliferation of A549 cells [139]
 Monoclonal antibody (mAb) U36 specific to CD44v6 Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma High tumor uptake [140]
 mAb (VFF18) to CD44v6 Human squamous cell carcinomas Fast tumor uptake [141]
 A humanized mAb for CD44 (RG7356) Leukemia B cells Cytotoxic effects [142]
 Anti-CD44 mAb (H4C4) Melanoma Blocking cell aggregation and aggregate coalescence [108]
CD44-targeting therapy via hyaluronic acid (HA)
 USP22 small interfering RNA-loaded nanoliposomes with CD44 antibodies Gastric cancer Targeting CD44( +) gastric cancer stem cells [144]
 HA coated cationic liposomes of cabazitaxel (CBX) and silibinin (SIL) Prostate cancer Showing proficient cytotoxicity against CD44( +) cells [147]
 HA-coated gold nanorods conjugated with pH-sensitive groups and loaded with doxorubicin Cancer Enhancing the killing of cancer cells and the inhibition of tumor growth [145]
 Polyethylene glycol-HA nanoparticles conjugated with mitoxantrone Breast cancer Delivering toward CD44 receptor-positive MDA-MB-231 cells rather than the CD44-negative MCF-7 cells [148]
 Nanosystem containing gold nanostar/siRNA of heat shock protein 72/HA Triple negative breast cancer Selectively sensitizing CD44-positive TNBC cells to hyperthermia [153]
 A phase IIa study: HA-irinotecan and carboplatin versus standard irinotecan and carboplatin Extensive-stage small cell lung cancer Selectively delivering anti-tumor drugs to CD44-positive tumor cells with enhanced efficacy [154]