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Table 3 Predictive performance of the number of positive markers for every threshold from 1 to 32 positive markers in DRE and FV DNAs

From: An expanded biomarker panel for the detection of prostate cancer from urine DNA

No. Positive markers Sample type No. Pos/ No. cases Sensitivity 95% CI No. Neg/ No. controls Specificity 95% CI PPV NPV
1of32 DRE '36/36 1 (1.00, 1.00) '5/49 0.1 (0.02, 0.19) 0.45 1
FV '30/30 1 (1.00, 1.00) '2/35 0.06 (− 0.02, 0.13) 0.48 1
2of32 DRE '36/36 1 (1.00, 1.00) '9/49 0.18 (0.08, 0.29) 0.47 1
FV '30/30 1 (1.00, 1.00) '5/35 0.14 (0.03, 0.26) 0.5 1
3of32 DRE '36/36 1 (1.00, 1.00) '14/49 0.29 (0.16, 0.41) 0.5 1
FV '30/30 1 (1.00, 1.00) '7/35 0.2 (0.07, 0.33) 0.52 1
4of32 DRE '34/36 0.94 (0.87, 1.02) '14/49 0.29 (0.16, 0.41) 0.49 0.87
FV '30/30 1 (1.00, 1.00) '9/35 0.26 (0.11, 0.40) 0.54 1
5of32 DRE '34/36 0.94 (0.87, 1.02) '19/49 0.39 (0.25, 0.52) 0.53 0.9
FV '30/30 1 (1.00, 1.00) '13/35 0.37 (0.21, 0.53) 0.57 1
6of32 DRE '34/36 0.94 (0.87, 1.02) '27/49 0.55 (0.41, 0.69) 0.6 0.93
FV '30/30 1 (1.00, 1.00) '16/35 0.46 (0.29, 0.62) 0.61 1
7of32 DRE '33/36 0.92 (0.83, 1.01) '29/49 0.59 (0.45, 0.73) 0.62 0.91
FV '29/30 0.97 (0.90, 1.03) '18/35 0.51 (0.35, 0.68) 0.63 0.95
8of32 DRE '32/36 0.89 (0.79, 0.99) '32/49 0.65 (0.52, 0.79) 0.65 0.89
FV '28/30 0.93 (0.84, 1.02) '23/35 0.66 (0.50, 0.81) 0.7 0.92
9of32 DRE '30/36 0.83 (0.71, 0.96) '33/49 0.67 (0.54, 0.80) 0.65 0.84
FV '28/30 0.93 (0.84, 1.02) '25/35 0.71 (0.56, 0.86) 0.73 0.92
10of32 DRE '29/36 0.81 (0.68, 0.93) '37/49 0.76 (0.63, 0.88) 0.71 0.85
FV '28/30 0.93 (0.84, 1.02) '27/35 0.77 (0.63, 0.91) 0.77 0.93
11of32 DRE '29/36 0.81 (0.68, 0.93) '38/49 0.78 (0.66, 0.89) 0.73 0.85
FV '26/30 0.87 (0.75, 0.99) '28/35 0.8 (0.67, 0.93) 0.79 0.88
12of32 DRE '28/36 0.78 (0.64, 0.91) '40/49 0.82 (0.71, 0.92) 0.76 0.84
FV '24/30 0.8 (0.66, 0.94) '30/35 0.86 (0.74, 0.97) 0.83 0.83
13of32 DRE '26/36 0.72 (0.58, 0.87) '41/49 0.84 (0.73, 0.94) 0.77 0.81
FV '23/30 0.77 (0.62, 0.92) '30/35 0.86 (0.74, 0.97) 0.82 0.81
14of32 DRE '24/36 0.67 (0.51, 0.82) '44/49 0.9 (0.81, 0.98) 0.83 0.79
FV '23/30 0.77 (0.62, 0.92) '31/35 0.89 (0.78, 0.99) 0.86 0.82
15of32 DRE '22/36 0.61 (0.45, 0.77) '47/49 0.96 (0.90, 1.01) 0.92 0.77
FV '19/30 0.63 (0.46, 0.81) '32/35 0.91 (0.82, 1.01) 0.86 0.74
16of32 DRE '20/36 0.56 (0.39, 0.72) '47/49 0.96 (0.90, 1.01) 0.91 0.75
FV '15/30 0.5 (0.32, 0.68) '34/35 0.97 (0.92, 1.03) 0.93 0.69
17of32 DRE '17/36 0.47 (0.31, 0.64) '48/49 0.98 (0.94, 1.02) 0.94 0.72
FV '13/30 0.43 (0.26, 0.61) '34/35 0.97 (0.92, 1.03) 0.92 0.67
18of32 DRE '12/36 0.33 (0.18, 0.49) '49/49 1 (1.00, 1.00) 1 0.67
FV '13/30 0.43 (0.26, 0.61) '34/35 0.97 (0.92, 1.03) 0.92 0.67
19of32 DRE '10/36 0.28 (0.13, 0.42) '49/49 1 (1.00, 1.00) 1 0.66
FV '12/30 0.4 (0.22, 0.58) '35/35 1 (1.00, 1.00) 1 0.66
20of32 DRE '9/36 0.25 (0.11, 0.39) '49/49 1 (1.00, 1.00) 1 0.65
FV '8/30 0.27 (0.11, 0.42) '35/35 1 (1.00, 1.00) 1 0.62
21of32 DRE '8/36 0.22 (0.09, 0.36) '49/49 1 (1.00, 1.00) 1 0.64
FV '7/30 0.23 (0.08, 0.38) '35/35 1 (1.00, 1.00) 1 0.6
22of32 DRE '8/36 0.22 (0.09, 0.36) '49/49 1 (1.00, 1.00) 1 0.64
FV '5/30 0.17 (0.03, 0.30) '35/35 1 (1.00, 1.00) 1 0.59
23of32 DRE '7/36 0.19 (0.07, 0.32) '49/49 1 (1.00, 1.00) 1 0.63
FV '5/30 0.17 (0.03, 0.30) '35/35 1 (1.00, 1.00) 1 0.59
24of32 DRE '7/36 0.19 (0.07, 0.32) '49/49 1 (1.00, 1.00) 1 0.63
FV '3/30 0.1 (− 0.01, 0.21) '35/35 1 (1.00, 1.00) 1 0.57
25of32 DRE '7/36 0.19 (0.07, 0.32) '49/49 1 (1.00, 1.00) 1 0.63
FV '2/30 0.07 (− 0.02, 0.16) '35/35 1 (1.00, 1.00) 1 0.56
26of32 DRE '7/36 0.19 (0.07, 0.32) '49/49 1 (1.00, 1.00) 1 0.63
FV '2/30 0.07 (− 0.02, 0.16) '35/35 1 (1.00, 1.00) 1 0.56
27of32 DRE '3/36 0.08 (− 0.01, 0.17) '49/49 1 (1.00, 1.00) 1 0.6
FV '2/30 0.07 (− 0.02, 0.16) '35/35 1 (1.00, 1.00) 1 0.56
28of32 DRE '2/36 0.06 (− 0.02, 0.13) '49/49 1 (1.00, 1.00) 1 0.59
FV '2/30 0.07 (− 0.02, 0.16) '35/35 1 (1.00, 1.00) 1 0.56
29of32 DRE '2/36 0.06 (− 0.02, 0.13) '49/49 1 (1.00, 1.00) 1 0.59
FV '2/30 0.07 (− 0.02, 0.16) '35/35 1 (1.00, 1.00) 1 0.56
30of32 DRE '2/36 0.06 (− 0.02, 0.13) '49/49 1 (1.00, 1.00) 1 0.59
FV '2/30 0.07 (− 0.02, 0.16) '35/35 1 (1.00, 1.00) 1 0.56
31of32 DRE '1/36 0.03 (− 0.03, 0.08) '49/49 1 (1.00, 1.00) 1 0.59
FV '2/30 0.07 (− 0.02, 0.16) '35/35 1 (1.00, 1.00) 1 0.56
32of32 DRE '0/36 0 (0.00, 0.00) '49/49 1 (1.00, 1.00) na 0.58
FV '0/30 0 (0.00, 0.00) '35/35 1 (1.00, 1.00) na 0.54
  1. The 10of32 threshold to recommend a biopsy is shown in italic