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Table 1 Examples of FDA-approved cancer immunotherapeutic agents

From: Cancer immunotherapy: are we there yet?

Modality Principle
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantion (e.g., leukemia and myeloma) 1. Reset the immune system
2. Allo-antigen response (graft versus tumor effect)
Antibody (e.g., retuximab, trastuzumab) 1. Eliminate cancer cells
2. Block key signaling pathways
Cytokines (e.g., type I interferon, interleukin-2) Boost both innate and adaptive immunity
Dendritic cells (e.g., Sip-T for prostate cancer) Enhance tumor-specific T cell priming
T cell checkpoint blockade (e.g., Ipilumimab for melanoma) Block/reverse immune tolerance
Microbes (e.g., BCG for the transitional bladder cancer) Enhance innate and adaptive immunity