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Table 1 Major gut microbial taxa and their predominant influence on systemic immunity and response to immunotherapy.

From: Gut microbiome and CAR-T therapy

Gut taxaImmune effect/treatment responseStudy typeCancer type
Predominately positive influence
 Firmicutes
  Faecalibacterium prauznitziiBoosts effector T-cells and dampens T-regsHumansMelanoma
  Faecalibacterium spp.Increases efficacy of anti-CTLA-4 immunotherapyHumansMetastatic melanoma
  Eubacterium limosum
  Clostridiales spp.
  Ruminococcaceae spp.
  Phascolarctobacterium spp.
Boost CD8+ T-cells and enhance anti-PD-1 responsesCell lineColorectal Adenocarcinoma
Cell line (MC38)
 Fusobacteria
  Fusobacterium ulcerans
  Fusobacterium varium
Boost CD8+ T-cells and enhance anti-PD-1 responsesCell lineMC38
Verrucomicrobia
  Akkermansia muciniphilaIncrease in memory T-cells and decrease in T-regs in the TMEHumansEpithelial tumors
 Increases mucus layer of the gut to prevent lipopolysaccharides absorptionHumansEpithelial tumors
Mixed influence
 Bacteroidetes
  Bacteroides fragilisIncreases efficacy of anti-CTLA-4 immunotherapyHuman/animal/cell lineEpithelial tumors
Promotion of T-regs through polysaccharide-AHumansHealthy humans
Higher IL-12 levels in transplant recipientsAnimal/cell lineCervical cancer
  Bacteroides thetaiotaomicronIncreases efficacy of anti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD-1 immunotherapyHumansMelanoma
  Bacteroides spp.Inferior response of anti-CTLA-4 immunotherapyHumansMetastatic melanoma
 Actinobacteria
Bifidobacterium longumIncreases CD8+ T-cellsAnimal/cell lineMelanoma
HumansMelanoma
  Bifidobacterium bifidumInduces naïve T-cell differentiation into T-regs and increases IL-10Humans/in vitroHealthy humans
Increases the integrity of epithelial barrier
Predominately negative influence
 Proteobacteria
  EnterobacteriaceaeInferior response and survivalHumansPediatric cancers