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Table 3 Lists the best currently available treatment suggestions for each syndrome and references for the recommendation

From: Paraneoplastic neurological complications of breast cancer

Syndrome Primary treatment Secondary treatments References
Paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration Antitumor therapy resection of the primary tumor increases the overall median survival rates
IVIG IVIG may be used alone or in combination with secondary treatments
Cyclophosphamide [45, 46]
Methylprednisolone [50, 51]
Opsiclonus–myoclonus syndrome Antitumor therapy including surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy
Immunotherapy (alternative) IVIG ± Corticosterods or Plasmapharesis
Mycophenolate mofetil(MM) Mycophenolate was found to be associated with decreased relapse rates after stopping immunotherapy
Symptomatic treatments
Valproic acid
[79, 118]
[34, 119]
[120, 121]
Stiff person syndrome Antitumor treatment alternatives: Benzodiazepines, IVIG, Plasmapharesis, Corticosteroids Baclofen [82, 88]
Dantrolene [89, 90]
Clonidine [91, 92]
Tizanidine [96100]
Physical therapy
Intrathecal baclofen-if refractory
Paraneoplastic limbic encephalomyelitis Antitumor treatment
Symptomatic treatment
Seizure control
Corticosteroids [7, 112]
Plasmapharesis [113, 114]
Paraneoplastic retinopathy There are no controlled trials for the treatment of paraneoplastic retinopathy nor paraneoplastic peripheral neuropathy. The literature is deemed insufficient at this time to recommend management of these conditions. The referenced case series and case report suggest the use of IVIG, plasmapharesis, steroids and/or chemotherapy [106, 123]
Paraneoplastic sensory peripheral neuropathy