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Table 2 Potential drug targets for directed therapy against metaplastic breast cancer

From: Metaplastic breast cancer: histologic characteristics, prognostic factors and systemic treatment strategies

Signaling pathways Possible drug targets
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition pathway E-cadherin repressor molecules
MAP kinase signaling pathway Raf protein kinase
Mitogen activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)
Mitogen activated protein kinases (ERK)
PI3K/AKT pathway PI3 kinase
Protein kinase 3 (Akt)
Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)
Epithelial growth factor pathway Epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR)
  1. Adapted from Hennessy et al. Biphasic metaplastic sarcomatoid carcinoma of the breast. Ann Oncol. 2006, 17:605–613 [28].
  2. Sebolt-Leopold. Development of anticancer drugs targeting the MAP kinase pathway. Oncogene. 2000, 19:6594-6599 [69].